BLOCKCHAIN AND SHIPPING INTEGRATION PROJECT
ASSOC. DR. CİHAT YAYCI
LOGIN................................................. .................................................................. .III
AIM................................................. .................................................................. ..... IV
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig.1 Smart contract
Fig.2 'Scattered ledger' Distributed Ledger Techonolgy (DLT)
ICONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
DLT 'Scattered Ledger' Distributed Ledger Techonolgy
The main aim of our maritime and Blockchain project is to integrate the blockchain technology, which is the technology of today and the future, into the maritime sector, starting from the disruptions in the 21st century maritime sector. In this goal, we have gathered our aims under the headings and mentioned our opinions, solution suggestions and what we can do. Our main aim with our project is to prevent the loss of time in the maritime sector and the loss of money due to loss of time. By bringing maritime and logistics stakeholders together in a single ecosystem, we aim to minimize the time loss in the multi-modal transportation process by integrating an ecosystem that is safe, fast, low-cost and where data protection is important, in the infrastructure of blockchain technology.
Our aim in this project, where we aim to integrate blockchain technology, which is the technology of our century, into the maritime industry is to establish an ecosystem that will bring together all stakeholders in maritime in a reliable and speedy infrastructure. Our goal is to revolutionize the maritime industry with this technology, which is modern, fast and comprehensively protected for personal and company data, instead of obsolete methods in the global maritime industry.
What is Blockchain?
The foundation of Blockchain technology, which is translated into Turkish as ‘blok zinciri’, was laid in the early 1990s with the work done by cryptography experts Stuart Haber and Scott Stornetta. Starting from the "hash tree" concept patented by Ralph Merkle in the 1970s, the two experts managed to approach the modern definition of blockchain, although they did not fully conceptualize their work. For this reason, according to many people, the inventor of this technology is Haber and Stornetta, not Satoshi Nakamoto.
The first Blockchain in its current meaning is as old as Bitcoin, which the first cryptocurrency in history. When the calendars showed October 31, 2008, it was stated in the whitepaper document named “Bitcoin: Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” published by a person or group named Satoshi Nakamoto that the BTC infrastructure was completely based on blockchain technology.
Blockchain, which allows digital data to be distributed rather than copied, has formed the backbone of a whole new type of internet. Although the digital currency was originally crafted for Bitcoin, the tech community is finding aims of new potential uses for this technology. Blockchain provides a permanent recording of transactions in a network. It is similar to the system database but uses a decentralized ledger instead of the traditional end-to-end, allowing each participant in the network to have their own copy of the ledger and be able to see all transactions. Each block is protected by an encrypted reference associated with the previous block, so it is very difficult to attack or hack the system.
We can think of blockchain as a world where every contract, transaction, business and payment is digitally recorded and signed in a way that is identified, verified, stored and shared. Every single step of the blockchain is transparent and secure, as every change in this system requires consensus. This situation ensures a high level of reliability of the system and eliminates both risks and the need for intermediaries.
How Blockchain Works?
Although Blockchain technology, which has a very wide working area, is often referred to with cryptocurrencies, it is used in many central or decentralized industries. Blockchain usage areas include numerous official and unofficial use cases, from banks to governments, from smart contracts to notary transactions. It is known that technology has the potential to lead to revolutionary changes and transformations in almost all business models in the world.
Today, there are many settlements that integrate blockchain technology into voting systems. In addition, the control of supply chains has become a much more transparent and consistent process with this technology. All kinds of intermediaries, which were previously needed to establish trust, are no longer needed thanks to the blockchain.
Thanks to this technology, many processes and procedures that were previously under the control of people are now much safer and more transparent. There are some authorities who describe blockchain technology as the most innovative invention since the birth of the internet.
The most important features underlying the working principle of blockchain technology; it is anonymous, distributed, decentralized and public, yet unbreakable and unhackable. The fact that an information record chain is both accessible and unbreakable to everyone causes everyone, especially computer scientists, to approach this technology with admiration. There is a simple logic behind the fact that the records committed to the blocks are unbreakable and unchangeable: In order to corrupt the blocks, all the blocks in this registry, which has billions of copies, must be changed. It is almost impossible to make such an intervention.
In today's Internet world, data transfer is carried out in many areas (multimedia, communication, web interface, etc.). Blockchain technology, on the other hand, is a distributed database that allows us to transfer assets that we attribute value to, apart from this data. With the Bitcoin digital currency proposed in 2008 by a secret writer nicknamed Satoshi Nakamoto, the existence of a new international currency began to be mentioned in the world. While Bitcoin was initially considered only as money, it was later realized that the Blockchain technology, on which Bitcoin is based, may have more general uses. In the most general terms, blockchain is the distribution of central trust in the internet environment by allowing a central server or a trusted authority to be removed. Blockchain technology is commonly known as the technology underlying virtual currencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.However, this technology has a much wider range with the possibilities it provides and its diversifiable applications.
Blockchain technology has become remarkable because of the role it can play in the more efficient operation of these systems by distributing the central trust structure in trust systems based on a single center, which is one of the important problems of today. Blockchain is a decentralized crypto ledger that names a brand new technology that will reshape our entire life by enabling the transfer of valuable assets in the current internet environment that provides data transfer.
The blockchain model consists of two basic concepts: the blocks that make up the blockchain and the records that make up these blocks.
Records: Blockchain records are any content information on which the related blockchain structure is built. This information can be values such as money transfer, fixture entry, customer records, according to the design. For virtual currencies, these records are money transfer information. Transfers made from one user registered in the system to another registered user are kept with these records. New transfer requests are also queued and saved and replaced during the next transaction.
Blocks: Records are combined and processed at regular intervals and written into blocks. The criteria such as how many records will be in the blocks and after which transactions the records will create a block are specific to the design of the blockchain. Generally, cryptographic hash algorithms and digital signatures are used during the creation of a block.
Abstract algorithms can be defined non-technically as follows: They are one-way functions that convert data of different lengths to a fixed length and always give the same output with the same input. A one-character change to a text changes the entire summary of the text. The hash functions are of great importance in the blockchain database as they provide data integrity control. While the hash of the blocks is taken, the hash value of the previous block is also added as an input, and because of the hash value of the n-1st block in the nth block, a block contains information about all the blocks before it. In other words, any block is linked to the previous and next blocks with the hash algorithm. That's why the name of the technology has been blockchain, which means chain-linked blocks.
About 80% of all academic research on blockchain is focused on Bitcoin. Less than 20% of studies focused on blockchain applications, including smart contracts. In addition, the researchers ignored the scalability problems of the blockchain, such as throughput capacity and latency. Although it has not fully proven itself in order for the blockchain to be used on a large scale, especially in banking, both academia and private R&D centers are working hard in terms of scalability and the solutions it can offer. These studies use advanced cryptographic mechanisms (hash functions, public key infrastructure, dynamic member multiparty signing, commitment schemes, zero-knowledge protocols, mapping-based cryptography, etc.), distributed systems, and game theory as tools.
In blockchain technology, each participant keeps a copy of all records from the start. Since changing these records will cause the summaries to change, the majority can notice this when the records are changed. Therefore, the need for a central database in a reliable environment is eliminated. With a distributed database system where everyone can verify, it can be proven that the right information is kept without trusting anyone.
In 2009, when the blockchain technology first emerged with Bitcoin, four different sciences came together. All of these sciences existed, but using them all together made Bitcoin revolutionary. Distributed trust was created with Bitcoin and a money communication independent from banks was provided. The method of keeping records and transfers created a new database approach. He created the theory of miners with the proof-of-work approach, which means proof of labor while creating new blocks. While doing all these transactions, the miners took the difficulty of cryptographic calculations behind them, making the effort an asset/commodity/value.
Since the trust mechanism is not based on individuals or institutions, but on more than one node in the distributed structure and the difficulty of the mathematical operations below, technical trust is provided. Depending on the structure of the blockchain, the privacy of the users can be fully ensured in the system to be established. the system is obtained. The system can be created and maintained not by one or a few authorities, but by many small users.
What is a smart contract?
Consider a spreadsheet that is copied and distributed thousands of times over a network of computers. Then imagine that this network is designed to regularly update that table. Here, you start to understand the blockchain. Information on a blockchain exists as a shared and constantly updated database.
There are obvious benefits to using the network in this way. Because the blockchain database is not stored in a single location, records are public and can be easily verified. There is also no centralized version of this information that hackers can access and corrupt. Since it is hosted on millions of computers at the same time, anyone on the internet can access the data in the database.
Robustness and Reliability of the Blockchain
1. It cannot be controlled by a single institution or organization.
2. It does not have a single breaking point.
Blockchain, like the internet, has an internal robustness. Because identical blocks of information are stored throughout the network, the blockchain is: Transparent and Incorruptible.
Blockchain technology is a consensus that automatically updates itself every 10 minutes. Being a self-monitoring digital value ecosystem, the network updates every transaction that takes place at 10-minute intervals.
Each of these transactions is called a “block”, thus revealing two important things: First, the principle of transparency is embedded in the entire network and public. The other is that to change any unit of information on the blockchain, a larger processing power is needed than that of the entire network, so it is not corrupted. While this is possible in theory, it is impossible in practice.
Network of Nodes
The blockchain consists of “nodes” that do computation. A node is a computer running a client connected to the blockchain and responsible for approving and transferring transactions.
Nodes automatically download an updated copy of the blockchain as soon as they are transferred to the blockchain network. The combined nodes form a powerful second-level network that is completely different from the current functioning of the internet. Each node is an administrator on the blockchain and joins the network voluntarily. In this respect, it can be said that the network is not centralized.
Although what the nodes are doing is called "mining", this is actually a wrong term. In fact, each node competes with each other to solve computational puzzles. Blockchain is a decentralized technology by its nature. Everything that happens on the blockchain affects the entire network. This has some important consequences.
Blockchain, a new way of verifying transactions, also overrides some aspects of traditional trading: For example, exchange transactions can occur almost instantly on the blockchain, or records such as land registry and cadastre can be kept entirely public.
Who Will Use The Blockchain?
As with the web infrastructure, it is not necessary to know the inside to benefit from the blockchain. The biggest potential use for blockchain technology right now is in the financial world.
The World Bank says money transfers in 2015 exceeded $430 billion, and blockchain developers are now in great demand. The blockchain can eliminate the middleman in such transactions.
Blockchain A New Web 3.0
Blockchain gives internet users the ability to create value and validates digital information. How will businesses benefit from this? Distributed ledgers, called “Smart Contracts”, make it possible to code simple contracts that only operate when specified conditions are met.
The functioning of the blockchain system and maritime
The "distributed ledger" Distributed Ledger Techonolgy (DLT) model, which enables to gather the transactions that take place separately in blockchain technology under one roof, means a database in which each of the units in the DLT network keeps its own records.
The creation of a database in which the records of all stakeholders in the maritime sector are kept, and the different records kept by all participants in this network, followed by consensus, are completed by adding all participants to the blockchain and obtaining their own copies.
Protection of Intellectual Rights
As it is known, it is possible to copy digital information endlessly and distribute it everywhere thanks to the internet. This provides web users with a goldmine of free content. However, copyright holders are not so lucky. They both lose their intellectual rights and therefore suffer material damage.
Smart contracts can protect copyrights, automate the online sale of creative works, and eliminate file copying and distribution. For example, Mycelia, founded by British singer and composer ImogenHeap, uses blockchain for P2P music distribution and allows musicians to sell their songs directly to their fans. It also sends license samples to producers, automatically splitting royalties between songwriters and musicians.
There is no doubt that better identity management on the web is needed. Authentication is the weak point of all financial transactions that take place over the internet.
However, solutions to the security risks that come with web commerce are not good. Distributed ledgers offer improved methods of proving who you are and the opportunity to digitize personal documents.
Having a secure identity will also be important for online interactions in the sharing economy.
Blockchain shows that new system integrations will have to be implemented in the Maritime industry in the very near future. Earlier this year, Wolfgang Lehmacher, Head of Supply Chain and Transport Industry for the World Economic Forum, discovered that Blockchain works in international trade, with a focus on how technology can overcome common barriers to trade.
Open and secure platforms based on blockchain can bring small businesses to the port, easily access port services, and connect with others via the digital port platform to perform their duties for customers working at terminals or ports. It provides payments and ease of doing business with collaboration tools between digital peers.
Blockchain helps to expand various international trade possibilities by getting rid of unnecessary procedures while successfully minimizing the high costs that often come with international trade and operations.
Why Blockchain Integration?
Considering the currently used transportation methods; we see a system that is more complex, slow, costly, and where people in the same task constantly send messages to each other and follow the process. And also; A system that wastes manual, time and paper, a system in which there are people who cannot adequately assess risk, and therefore fraud cases are constantly experienced, as well as; There is a system where the cost of handling the container is almost the same as the cost of transporting the container.
If we examine the platform system; fast, secure access, digital documents where end users have access to each other, have authorized approval and cannot be modified, an organization with reliable workflow, better risk assessment and less impact on the workflow of unauthorized persons, and less administrative costs and document expense for customs There is an order that has been removed.
- An international blockchain-based system will be created to find cargo on board. In this system, all agreements used in the maritime sector will be put into software and the trading parties will make their agreements through the system. With this system, the trading parties will save both time and gain high profits.
- Vehicles used in all multi-modal transportation systems in the world will be registered in the system.
-Companies will be able to track their loads over the system.
- Blockchain system will be used for money transfers and the transfer time will be reduced to 4 seconds.
- Integration of stakeholders from port authority to shipowner, from loader to insurance company and banks will be realized with blockchain.
- Constructively develop threats and weaknesses in customs clearance. To offer the opportunity to meet and evaluate the common denominators with a win-win idea, together with the general communication as a multimodal.
-To create an environment of transparency and trust in the national and international environment.
- Solution-oriented support for issues such as reducing bureaucratic time and communication transportation costs, transparency and eliminating unnecessary paper-based documents.
- With the help of GPS, modem or a sim card, information such as the location, temperature, humidity and power level of the containers can be monitored and the customer will be able to access this information in real time. In this way, the customer can warn the manufacturer or supplier when he sees the unfavorable conditions of the container before loading, and the carrier or docker can instantly see when the power of the container is turned off. In this way, both operational efficiency and customer satisfaction, and more importantly, the visibility, traceability and reliability of the supply chain both at sea and on land will increase.
-This technology will be used to track containers from shipment reservation to cargo delivery.
Thanks to our system, a system will be created that prevents cases such as fraud and forgery. Since the documentation submitted by the parties in the operation of our system will be blockchain-based software documentation, they cannot be changed and the system will not be hackable.
Transparency has emerged as an important concept for both public and private sector players in the last two decades. Global supply chains are increasingly faced with mandatory or voluntary demands for transparency. Supply chains are compelled to share information by stakeholders about the environmental and sustainability qualities of products and production processes throughout the chain.
It is often difficult for businesses to track any product throughout the supply chain from the raw material stage to the final product stage. Traceability is a complex issue as it requires the involvement and collaboration of actors throughout the entire supply chain to track the history of a product. However, blockchain technology makes it easy and possible to trace the supply chain.
Blockchain and our project will enable businesses, suppliers and customers to keep records and share this information with every member throughout the entire supply chain, providing supply chain traceability.
Traceability; It is divided into two as external and internal traceability. External traceability; product identification numbers are transmitted to distribution channel participants on product labels or related paper or electronic business documents. Implementing a traceability system within a supply chain requires all necessary parties within the supply chain to connect the physical flow of products to the information flow. In this direction, we have built a system that integrates all parties under one roof in our project.
TABLO VAR ÇEVRİLMEDİ
The traceability of our project will contribute directly to the companies, and the risks related to the supply chain will be solved more easily, as it will enable the manufacturers to monitor the first-level suppliers more closely in the supply chain. The traceability system applied at different stages of the supply chain will help the decision maker by distinguishing the processes that are effective or not. For new suppliers, businesses will be able to ask questions about how they monitor their supply chain and measure the supplier's contribution to the business.
Key features of the integrity, flexibility and transparency of the blockchain; It is seen as an attractive option for businesses to revolutionize their business processes. With the advancement of technology, especially the increasing use of devices compatible with the Internet of Things, offers a wide variety of opportunities related to automation, information sharing and transformation of businesses. The innovation behind the blockchain also emerges from the combination of existing technologies: stakeholder networking, cryptographic algorithms, distributed data storage and decentralized consensus mechanisms to name a few.
Supply chains can be very long at times. The main difficulty in demonstrating the transparency and legitimacy of supply chains is the geographic distance between final consumers and producers of a product. For this reason, there are important factors that make the deficiency felt more among the supply chain members and affect the performance of the supply chain. Trust and shared vision, which are among these elements, are the two most important factors in partnerships to be established among supply chain members.
Collaborative alliances cannot be built or sustained without an element of trust. Shared knowledge, loyalty and trust among partners have become indispensable elements for supply chain integration, increasing performance and successful supply chain implementations.
Supply chain planning based on knowledge and trust shared with business partners is an indispensable requirement for successful supply chain management. A lack of trust between trading partners often requires every transaction to be reviewed and verified, driving transaction costs to an unacceptably high level. Efficiency is being reduced, and most importantly, efficiency and productivity, which are the cornerstones of supply chain goals, are jeopardized.
With this perspective, we integrate newly developed blockchain technology into business processes as the essential component required to establish security, distribution, openness, cost-effectiveness and most importantly trust. In this direction, with our application of modern technologies, the innovative business process called Industry 4.0; our ultimate goal is to increase the levels of collaboration, automation, trust and transparency. Blockchain, which has the new technological infrastructure used to achieve the goals we have stated, has a decentralized, replicated, unalterable and easily tampered record system. Data on the blockchain cannot be deleted, anyone can read the data on the blockchain and check its accuracy. The most important implication of this architecture is that it eliminates middlemen. Untrusted or semi-trusted parties can interact with each other directly and transparently without the presence of a trusted intermediary.
Traditional central systems; modern decentralized blockchain technology has the disadvantage of trust, security, time and cost for transactions; eliminates intermediaries and allows transactions to be verified more easily and quickly. In addition to all these features, it provides more security and more transparency at a low cost.
Blockchain provides valid and effective measurement of the results and performance of supply chain processes. Input tracking data is immutable if recorded in a blockchain ledger. Thanks to our project, other suppliers in the chain can also track shipments, deliveries and progress. In this way, blockchain builds trust between suppliers. Our blockchain integration also provides the opportunity to measure product quality during product shipping. E.g; By analyzing data on travel path and duration, stakeholders in the supply chain can know if the product is in the wrong place and staying in one place for too long. This is particularly important for refrigerated products that cannot be left in hot environments.
In the traditional trade finance system; All parties such as importer, exporter, forwarder, customs office and banks must maintain their own database for all documents related to the transaction. It is imperative to ensure that the information contained in each of these databases is compatible with each other and to take corrective steps to determine which copy of the inaccurate documents is correct. In this sense, our blockchain and project eliminates the obligation of each of the organizations that are party to trade finance to record information in a separate database and ensures that all stakeholders have the same information and documents.
It has been shown that blockchain technology has reduced the shipping time of materials, thus reducing the time to put the products on the production line by 40%, and the process is completed at a very low cost. Making document submissions safer and more efficient in foreign trade has reduced document submission times and costs. It was delivered to the importing country via the blockchain, and electronic bills of lading were sent to the relevant parties in just 1 second.
While the completion of the letter of credit process provided in the financing of foreign trade takes place between 5-10 days under normal conditions, Blockchain-based letter of credit transactions were completed within 24 hours. In the research conducted by Bain & Company for the World Economic Forum, it was concluded that Blockchain technology will increase the international trade volume by 1.1 trillion dollars in a 10-year period.
With our blockchain technology and integration project, we ensure that the necessary documents regarding foreign trade transactions can be uploaded digitally and monitored by the relevant parties without the need for physical control. In this framework, we will solve the problems that require physical control by the public administration for products subject to permission such as Turkish Standards Institute certificate, control certificate, certificate of conformity in import transactions in Turkish foreign trade, and therefore lead to prolongation of processing times. Within the scope of the TradeTrust project, the fact that electronic bills of lading are made available to all interested parties within 1 second is the biggest indicator of this situation.
Thanks to our blockchain project, manual transactions and controls at border gates will be eliminated, transaction times will be shortened and costs will be reduced. The problem of delaying vehicle unloading at the destination due to the physical preparation and physical transportation of documents such as the packing list in Turkish foreign trade will be resolved with the possibility of digitally recording and monitoring the documents in blockchain technology, and the processing times will be shortened.Because, one of the most important cost elements of international trade is that the product subject to trade does not move at any stage and waits. Our Blockchain platform, in which all trading parties participate, has the potential to significantly reduce waiting times, as it makes the issue visible and manageable simultaneously. In addition, the problems experienced in testing the accuracy of manually prepared documents with traditional methods such as stamp and signature, and the potential of human error in the information will be eliminated with our Blockchain project.
Thus, the paperless trade opportunity that Blockchain technology will provide will provide an advantage in terms of Turkish foreign trade, where the cost element arising from documentation transactions is high. In addition, thanks to the early detection of physical errors in the said documents, the costs arising from waiting will be reduced. The fact that the blockchain technology provides transparency and trust between the parties of foreign trade will increase the participation of micro-enterprises and small businesses such as SMEs in foreign trade, thus Turkish foreign trade will spread to wider segments and the total foreign trade volume will increase. The time and cost advantage that blockchain technology will provide will increase the quality of service. Considering that blockchain technology is used by a limited number of countries in foreign trade transactions, it is clear that it will provide a competitive advantage against countries using traditional methods. This situation has the potential to increase the foreign trade volume. Considering that Turkish foreign trade is mostly carried out by sea, we will reach the position of leading the world maritime with the participation of Turkish enterprises in Turkey with our project that will cause the international trade to change its shell.
BLOCKCHAIN AND SHIPPING REACTION FROM ANKARA TO LUXEMBOURG
Company A, which produces ceramics in Ankara, will export to Enterprise B in Luxembourg. To explain this logistics activity through our system; It will ship its products from Ankara to Istanbul Ambarlı port by road. During this transportation process, company officials will be able to meet with the transportation companies already in our system and ask for offers. In the normal process, this process takes place through communication tools such as telephone and e-mail. This situation also costs a very important factor such as time. In our system, a meeting will take place in a very short time, even instantaneously, and a decision can be made. When an agreement is reached, when the carrier company receives the products, they will be instantly recorded in the system we have created with the barcode system. In this case, both the seller and the buyer will be able to follow this event instantly. Shipment will be made from Ankara to Ambarlı Port.
In the production facilities, the products will be placed in smart containers and encrypted by our blockchain-based system, and the containers will be tracked instantly. Containers will be shipped securely until the destination. In case the containers are opened or desired to be opened while they are being shipped, warning notifications will be sent to the parties. Containers arriving at the warehouse will be negotiated simultaneously with the ship's addressees, and even if there is more than one ship, will be agreed according to the proposal procedure, since the ships that will go to the Trieste port in Italy by the manufacturer company's authorities or through the agency the company works for are registered in the system.
After the necessary documents related to this shipment are created between the parties, they will be uploaded to the system. The aim here is to keep and host documents in a reliable environment. When the ship arrives at the destination port after loading on the ship, the shipment will continue according to the status of the agreement. Assuming that Company A completely undertakes the delivery, the vehicles to be used in multimodal transportation by rail and road from Triaste port to Luxembourg will also be carried out in instant communication with the global logistics companies registered in our system. Transactions that take place here, too, will be uploaded to our system. If a planned shipment is to be made, all these actions will be carried out in the same way by the stakeholders registered in the system and will be completed together with the system monitoring. The money transfers that will take place during the process will be transferred directly through our system within seconds, before or at the end of the transaction, according to the addressees of the parties, following the agreement.
- By moving the industry to a blockchain-centric order, an expenditure of approximately $1.8 trillion will be prevented, despite an increase in benefits of approximately 10%.
With the system integration, there will be a 15% increase in world trade by overcoming the global supply barriers between countries. The documents required for trade will be reduced by at least 80%.
The blockchain-based commercial document module will enable importers and exporters, customs brokers, customs, other government agencies and trusted third parties such as NGOs to collaborate in cross-enterprise business processes and information exchange, with the assurance of a secure and unalterable audit trail.
- With the end users in the system, the influence of the intermediaries will be reduced, and the productivity of the terminals will be increased with the real-time access.
-Fast, secure access, digital documents where end users have access to each other, have authorized approval and cannot be changed.
- An order in which there is a reliable workflow, better risk assessment and reduced influence of unauthorized persons on the workflow, and less administrative costs and the removal of documents for customs.
- With the documents related to the import and export of products being transparent, open and digital, less paperwork will be carried out, a better risk assessment can be made and transactions can now be carried out faster and easier.
-Real-time access to terminals and ships will be possible.
-Money transfers will take place in as little as 4 seconds.
- Preventing fraud cases.
-Creating an environment of transparency and trust in the national and international environment.
-A more transparent system where there is no paper system, offering solutions to customers.
- A real-time access will be provided, with participation in the end-to-end supply chain, more planned and beneficial transportation will take place.
-Blockchain helps to expand various international trade possibilities by getting rid of unnecessary procedures while successfully minimizing the high costs that often come with international trade and operations.
They can easily access port services and connect with others through the digital port platform. It provides payments and ease of doing business with collaboration tools between digital peers.
- Very low money transfer commission.
Open and secure platforms based on blockchain can bring small businesses to the port to fulfill the duties of customers working at terminals or port.
-New costs for system integration.
BLOCKCHAIN AND SHIPPING INTEGRATION STAKEHOLDERS\ NAVAL CHAİN
Görkem Ovalı/ Bandırma On Yedi Eylül Üniversitesi/ Denizcilik Fakültesi/Denizcilik İşletmeleri Yönetimi * GSM: 551 191 9236 Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Burak Çınar/ Akdeniz Üniversitesi/ Kemer Denizcilik Fakültesi/ Denizcilik İşletmeleri Yönetimi *GSM: 553 508 6000
Sinan Eroğlu/ Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi / Denizcilik Fakültesi/ Gemi Makineleri İşletme Mühendisliği * GSM: 535 326 8902