Ethnic Terror Organizations A Struggle Against the ASALA-PKK Terrorism Axis.

Sosyal Medyada Paylaş!


This essay describes, how the ethnic-terroristic activities of the armenian terror organization has been arose, the awful undertaken teror activities of the PKK against the Republic of Turkey, which started in the recent history, their ethnic-terroristic objectives and their continuing unitl today. as well es, the closeness of the both enthnic directed Terror organizations ASALA-PKK, and their coorporation and analyses the individual dangers for the Republic of Turkey. And the historical development as a continuing perspective, in different places in the world and within the borders of the Republic of Turkey, as well as towards the official state officials, , the agreements made according to the Bekaa-Valley (Lebanon) and the joint military trainings to divide Turkey through terrorism, as well as the initiation of an agenda to establish a federation to establish autonomous territory within the borders of Turkey afterwards. Furthermore, this essay intends to examine the scope and impact of the terrorist support provided by the state of Armenia to the ASALA and PKK terrorist organizations and, in this sense, to make proposals to counter the problem of ethnic terrorism and the result of it and the ethnic separation activities in order to be able to neutralize the state of fear and violence caused by terrorism, and also to enrich the methodology on the subject. 

Keywords; Terrorisms, ASALA; PKK, ethnic terrorism, Massacer


The definition of terrorism was adopted by the Turkish Parliament in 1991 under the Anti-Terror Law. According to the first article of this law (amended first paragraph: 15 / 7 / 2003-4928 / 20 md.) Terror is a phenomenon that is represented by the use of violence and ALL types of crimes aimed at weakening state authority through one or more methods of fear, repression and intimidation, and all acts aimed at eliminating the internal and external security of the state. International terrorism is defined as terrorism in which persons or organizations, external financial supporters of terrorism or with state support resort to violence. The United Nations Security Council, it its resolution 1566, of October 2004, elaborates this definition, stating that terrorists acts are “criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act.” The Security Council recalls that such acts are “under no circumstances justifiable by considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other similar nature.” The UN General Assembly reaffirmed this definition in January 2006 (Resolution 60/43), defining terrorist acts as “criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes.” In the last days of the Ottoman Empire, when it was supported by the outside forces, the ethnic terror was carried out against the state authorities and officials, and the policy of attrition was declared as the goal. In this context, ethnic massacres were committed in several areas of Anatolia, and as a result, the goal of dividing the Ottoman Empire was realized. Later on, the aim was declared to be the division of the Republic of Turkey. This plan continues to this day and the implementation of the Assymetric Terror is the proof of this agenda. In this essay, the ethnic terror and separatist efforts by the ASALA, founded in 1975, with the later PKK, organized in 1978 in the majority in southeastern Anatolia, into a system, which stood in an interwoven relationship; this is proven here on the basis of documents. After the absolute disappearance of the terrorist organization ASALA in 1984 and the subsequent rise of the PKK as an ethnic terrorist organization was only the momentum of the change of the puppet organization. However, the attempt of weakening the indivisibility of the Turkish state continues without interruption at the same pace until today. In this context, it must be said that in order to combat ethnic terrorism, it is primarily necessary to determine which techniques, tactics and ways of working should be applied, and to analyzed systematically and directly , in a solution-oriented manner. 

The Concept of Ethnic Terror and Its Objectives

Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism motivated by ethnic nationalism. Nationalist terrorists seek some form of self-determination, which can range from gaining greater autonomy to establishing a fully independent, sovereign state. However, some researchers argue that this terrorism is primarily geopolitically motivated. Ethnic terrorism, on the other hand, is defined as violence that is explicitly motivated by ethnic hatred and conflict. The minimum requirement for ethnic tensions to lead to ethnic terrorism on a systemic level is a heterogeneous society and the absence of a power that keeps them from fighting. The underlying reason for the systematic targeting of civilians by terroristic organizations that carry out ethnic terrorist activities is to intimidate the people through coercion and to create pressure on the public authority by the people. 

An Ethnic Terrorist Organization: The Historical Characteristics of ASALA

The Ottoman Empire, which was greatly affected by the Balkan uprisings at the beginning of the 20th century, began to lose its territories in the region with the Balkan Wars, which ended in 1913. Hoping through the independence of the Balkan countries, separatist Armenians demanded territories in Anatolia. In 1896, separatists formed an armed terrorist organization under the leadership of Ovanes Yusufyan. They became strengthened by the participation of names such as Artashes Minasyan, Artanis Anderasyan, Artemis Devyan (Yegiptachi), Papken Syuni, Vardes Serengulyan (Zarmayr), Arşak Varamyan (Vagan), Vahan Tatevyan. Their terrorist activities became known as Nemesis Revenge Organization. After the communist October revolution in Russia in 1917, the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic was established by Dashnaksutyun in 1922, (a national-racist and socialist political party in Armenia). However, this statehood and gaining political power did not cause the terrorist activities to come to an end. In 1972, the Dashnaks, the founders of the Armenian state, founded the terrorist organization ESAK (Armenian Genocide Justice Commandos). They also supported the establishment of the Terror Organization ASALA, which was founded in 1975 surrounded by Marxist teachings against Turkey. They  organized attacks on Turkish foreign missions and their attacks on members of the Turkish Diplomatic Choir continuously and within a certain concept. ASALA was organized in Lebanon, received training and extensive support from the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), received military training in Soviet Unions's Sevastopol from the formerly terrorist Al-Fatah group, and Syrian intelligence Al-Muhaberat, and received its theoretical training from the KGB and GRU. The PLO's support for ASALA, or more precisely, the Soviet Union-Syria support axis, is better understood when we consider the actions of these actors at that time. Then, in those years, the formation of the PKK took place in a similar environment, having been trained in the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon. 

Establishment Of PKK

With the objective of dividing the Republic of Turkey, terrorists formed a Marxist-Stalinist terrorist organization in the early 1970s under the leadership of the Anatolian Armenian "Artin Agopian" who adopted the nickname Öcalan. The terrorists entered Lebanon via Syria and trained with other terrorist organizations in the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon in 1979. After completing the investigation after training, they began to use various techniques of asymmetric warfare in southeastern Anatolia with the support of the government in Syria in 1984. They committed a massacre by shooting 33 unarmed soldiers who were on their way to your unit on the Bingöl-Elazığ highway on May 25, 1993. There are meanwhile more than 40,000 victims of PKK terrorism in Turkey. The PKK, which has committed several dozen massacres with its ethnic separatist terrorist activities, is an organization of Marxist-Stalinist origin. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, it has undergone some changes so that the organization could survive. PKK has used terrorist attacks to increase its sensitivity to religion and ethnic separatism and set as a objective to achieve an autonomous structure in Turkey. In this way, it was observed that the organization aimed to massacre civilians as a strategy from 1992 to 1995. The most striking point in the report on PKK prepared by Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International is: PKK committed massacres of Turkish civilians, which it declared as pro-state, and presented this as the organization's policy. According to Amnesty International, the PKK is responsible inter alia for the deaths of a total of 360 people, 39 women, 76 children, among others. 

The Relationship between ASALA and the PKK- Similarities and Cooperation.

In order to examine the complicate relationship of ASALA and PKK with each other, three important points should be mentioned. First, the source of the two organizations is ethnic terrorism. By creating ethnic differences, weakening the power of the state by force of arms and in order to make demands on Turkey if successful. Secondly, the sources and starting points from which the organizations feed are very similar. The external forces that feed them and in which they find supporters are the same. They were trained according to Marxist-Stalinist ideology and the training they received in the Bekaa Valley. They argue that their so-called homeland is occupied by Turkey, and if we examine the process of action of the organizations, in the process in which the activities of ASALA declined and ended completely, the PKK was paved the way and it began to carry out quickly planned actions and massacres . From this point of view, the PKK's possibility to be the continuation of ASALA has strengthened its position.  Thirdly, both terrorist groups target civilians and unarmed people in massacres. Hundreds of people lost their lives due to the civilian massacres perpetrated by both PKK and ASALA. The militarized ASALA and PKK terrorists declared in 1980 in Lebanon, a joint action plan against Turkey. The joint declaration was prepared at a meeting held under the auspices of the militants of the Palestine Liberation Army PLO. The ASALA representative mentioned that with the joint actions they will undertake with the terrorist PKK members, the so-called Armenia, which they claim is inside the borders of Turkey, will be saved, "For this reason, the ASALA, the PKK and it can use the accesses of the PKK because they cannot be efficient from the outside" With this, the ASALA revealed their true vision.

In the same meeting, the PKK representative took the floor and thanked ASALA for their support and stated that they are different from the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), which was founded in the north of Iraq, and stated that their goal is to establish an independent state in the region of Turkey that they claim. 

Armenian Commando Armies

It can be clearly seen from the CIA document that there was a PKK-ASALA alliance. From this point of view, it can be stated that these two terrorist organizations conducted joint operations and ethnic-terrorist activities, and attempted to directly threaten the territorial integrity of Turkey. However, being Marxist-Stalinist oriented terrorist organizations, their areas of action were limited after the collapse of the USSR, and in their demands were modified to want to establish a more autonomous structure rather than independence. Subsequently, the two terrorist organizers decided to establish the "Armenian-Kurdish Federated State," the unifying ASALA and the PKK attempted to create an Armenian sector in eastern Anatolia and southeastern Anatolia a PKK region. 


Proposed Solutions for Combating Ethnic Terrorism

Regarding the direction in which the techniques, tactics and procedures suitable for use against ethnic terrorism should be developed, it is necessary to draw attention to the importance of "popular support", which is the most important role, the top priority in the fight against terrorism. For terrorist organizations, it is necessary to get help from the population, but it is also an absolute necessity, in order to fight terrorism, to get the support of the population. In Mao's description, terrorist organizations are fish and people are a sea. The goal of terrorist organizations is to win the favor of the people, and their desire to win the favor of the people, however, is due to the goal, which is to legitimize the terrorist activities they carry out by trying to get public opinion behind them. The most important step that the state should take in this regard is to cut off the terrorist organizations from the population and win the population over. In particular, the fact that ethnic terror and separatism become a popular uprising depends on a cause and ideological depth. If there is no cause, it can be created, if there are small causes, it can be strengthened, if it is outdated, it can be reignited by analyzing and fighting the exploitable reasons or the most obvious weaknesses of the ideology pursued and the incompatibility of the goal behind it. Moreover, the main objective should be to win the battle in the minds of society when opposing such organizations. To this end, it is necessary to address the psychological techniques used by terrorist organizations. Knowing that propaganda and mass influence techniques are not enough, efforts must be made to increase the confidence of people in sensitive areas towards the state. There is a constant need to expand the measures taken in the psychological operation and transfer the effect to the grassroots. In this way, the door will be closed to organizations aiming at separatism through ethnic terror, and they will lose their legitimacy. The society's public or implicit help is based on experience from personal analysis. In the question of "which of the parties is coming to him and which party has more the ability to control and security", he chooses a side. Man inherently hopes for a sense of confidence and thrives on the calculation of prosperity in his future. To combat against terrorism, methods must be developed against asymmetric wars. Given the imbalance in terms of quality and quantity in an asymmetric war, and moreover, given the fact that organizations that carry out terrorist activities can not gain legitimacy from a legal point of view; Thus, the experience of officials working in the region in leadership positions and the constant sense of balance, strength and justice of the state is an important factor for control. Mass insults and targeted actions, bad behavior towards the population are factors that prevent the creation of a reliable environment and remove the people from the state is the result. These are the factors that push the population into the arms of terrorist organizations and also form public opinion by carrying the events abroad. If this cannot be prevented and there is a wrong behavior, a quick analysis is needed. To prevent possible reactions in society, those who make mistakes and errors should be punished quickly and the punishment explained. When harm occurs as a result of an error, it must be rectified. This will not shake the confidence in the leaders and officials. Otherwise, you would serve the purpose of taking revenge and creating justice, which is one of the roles you appoint in the actions of organizations that have produced terror from ethnicity. In this context, the laws are most important as a reference. 

Terrorist organizations can always resort to lies to enlist the support of society and attract the attention of international institutions and organizations. It is important to identify possible channels of abuse, anticipate and relay real news. According to Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights - Freedom of Expression. "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. This right includes freedom of opinion and expression, and freedom to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers." But also in the Universal Decleration of Human Rights Article § 3 states. "Article 3, Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person". It is important to prevent potential problems early without leaving gaps or confusion. Publications that incite the public to hatred and attempt to make terrorist organizations look bigger than they are should not fall within the scope of freedom of expression. Also in Article 10 of the Convention, the right to ban media aimed at weakening the power of public authority is legal. 


To neutralize terrorist organizations, political integrity must be achieved. It is of great importance that both politicians and public officials treat the issue as a whole. National policy should be pursued, not the preservation of interests or political status. In this context, it is important that both politicians and statesmen from the national policies defined within a given concept agree on a common approach and use the same reasoning. For more than fifty years, Turkey has been fighting against ethnic terrorism. In this context, it is stated that another institution is needed to achieve the ultimate aim. It should be taken into account that this formation ordered by the National Security Council or the relevant ministry will monitor the matter, prepare reports and send them to the relevant institutions, and that the institution that focuses on consultation and evaluation rather than an executive identity according to the information and intelligence received. Through this new institution making adequate warnings for the scope of the fight against terrorism, taking all other necessary measures and providing multi-service for the integrity of the fight, the detection of problems by this institution will be facilitated. Furthermore, it should also be respected as a reinforcer in problem solving. 


The historical origins of ethnic terror have been taking place in Turkish geography for more than a hundred years. The Armenian terror that started with Dashnaksutyun and Hinchak has united with the PKK since 1984 and has continued the separatist activities of the Turkish Republic under one umbrella in Eastern Anatolia and Southeastern Anatolia rapidly. The massacres of civilians committed by the Asala and the PKK both individually and jointly, the crimes against public authority, the bombings and assassinations are aimed at weakening the power and strength of the state. In this way, the desire to be trustworthy in the eyes of the public and to create emptiness and hesitation in the minds of the people is implicitly conveyed. The aim of terrorism is to pursue a policy of intimidation by force. It aims to weaken the State it targets and to use this to its own advantage. To do this, the terorrist seeks to gain the support of the people, who are his most important asset. The first measure that states should take in the fight against terror and terrorism must necessarily be to secure the support of the people. It is necessary to recognize the consequences of terror at an early stage and intervene. It is of great importance to eliminate all the causes that support terrorist organizations and to stop their abuses. Ensuring the isolation of terrorist organizations through the application of external and internal isolation, is an important step in the fight. The goal of internal isolation is to separate the terrorist organization from the population. Illegitimate terrorist acts can be disseminated to the public through proper channels and with real information. The objective of external isolation is to cut off economic, political, military, and ideological support for terrorism. Neighboring countries are primarily places where this isolation must be carried out. Countries that support activities against the country should be deterred through a series of economic and political measures, and in cases where this is not sufficient, implicit or direct countermeasures should be taken. Neutralizing the causes and not allowing the causes to arise must become a state tradition and engage in supra-political activities at the national level. It is very important that the opposite steps and practices are based on a long-term roadmap and on a continuous government policy to prevent terrorist organizations that will form if they find points of attachment and that are used consistently through external collaborations. Otherwise, it must be seen that a policy that is not based on continuity and is sporadic is not enough to control the process, and in this context should be implemented a specific policy. 

TURK DEGS Researcher; Dursun Mert Tupuz