It can be clearly seen from the CIA document that there was a PKK-ASALA alliance. From this point of view, it can be stated that these two terrorist organizations conducted joint operations and ethnic-terrorist activities, and attempted to directly threaten the territorial integrity of Turkey. However, being Marxist-Stalinist oriented terrorist organizations, their areas of action were limited after the collapse of the USSR, and in their demands were modified to want to establish a more autonomous structure rather than independence. Subsequently, the two terrorist organizers decided to establish the "Armenian-Kurdish Federated State," the unifying ASALA and the PKK attempted to create an Armenian sector in eastern Anatolia and southeastern Anatolia a PKK region.
Proposed Solutions for Combating Ethnic Terrorism
Regarding the direction in which the techniques, tactics and procedures suitable for use against ethnic terrorism should be developed, it is necessary to draw attention to the importance of "popular support", which is the most important role, the top priority in the fight against terrorism. For terrorist organizations, it is necessary to get help from the population, but it is also an absolute necessity, in order to fight terrorism, to get the support of the population. In Mao's description, terrorist organizations are fish and people are a sea. The goal of terrorist organizations is to win the favor of the people, and their desire to win the favor of the people, however, is due to the goal, which is to legitimize the terrorist activities they carry out by trying to get public opinion behind them. The most important step that the state should take in this regard is to cut off the terrorist organizations from the population and win the population over. In particular, the fact that ethnic terror and separatism become a popular uprising depends on a cause and ideological depth. If there is no cause, it can be created, if there are small causes, it can be strengthened, if it is outdated, it can be reignited by analyzing and fighting the exploitable reasons or the most obvious weaknesses of the ideology pursued and the incompatibility of the goal behind it. Moreover, the main objective should be to win the battle in the minds of society when opposing such organizations. To this end, it is necessary to address the psychological techniques used by terrorist organizations. Knowing that propaganda and mass influence techniques are not enough, efforts must be made to increase the confidence of people in sensitive areas towards the state. There is a constant need to expand the measures taken in the psychological operation and transfer the effect to the grassroots. In this way, the door will be closed to organizations aiming at separatism through ethnic terror, and they will lose their legitimacy. The society's public or implicit help is based on experience from personal analysis. In the question of "which of the parties is coming to him and which party has more the ability to control and security", he chooses a side. Man inherently hopes for a sense of confidence and thrives on the calculation of prosperity in his future. To combat against terrorism, methods must be developed against asymmetric wars. Given the imbalance in terms of quality and quantity in an asymmetric war, and moreover, given the fact that organizations that carry out terrorist activities can not gain legitimacy from a legal point of view; Thus, the experience of officials working in the region in leadership positions and the constant sense of balance, strength and justice of the state is an important factor for control. Mass insults and targeted actions, bad behavior towards the population are factors that prevent the creation of a reliable environment and remove the people from the state is the result. These are the factors that push the population into the arms of terrorist organizations and also form public opinion by carrying the events abroad. If this cannot be prevented and there is a wrong behavior, a quick analysis is needed. To prevent possible reactions in society, those who make mistakes and errors should be punished quickly and the punishment explained. When harm occurs as a result of an error, it must be rectified. This will not shake the confidence in the leaders and officials. Otherwise, you would serve the purpose of taking revenge and creating justice, which is one of the roles you appoint in the actions of organizations that have produced terror from ethnicity. In this context, the laws are most important as a reference.
Terrorist organizations can always resort to lies to enlist the support of society and attract the attention of international institutions and organizations. It is important to identify possible channels of abuse, anticipate and relay real news. According to Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights - Freedom of Expression. "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. This right includes freedom of opinion and expression, and freedom to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers." But also in the Universal Decleration of Human Rights Article § 3 states. "Article 3, Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person". It is important to prevent potential problems early without leaving gaps or confusion. Publications that incite the public to hatred and attempt to make terrorist organizations look bigger than they are should not fall within the scope of freedom of expression. Also in Article 10 of the Convention, the right to ban media aimed at weakening the power of public authority is legal.
To neutralize terrorist organizations, political integrity must be achieved. It is of great importance that both politicians and public officials treat the issue as a whole. National policy should be pursued, not the preservation of interests or political status. In this context, it is important that both politicians and statesmen from the national policies defined within a given concept agree on a common approach and use the same reasoning. For more than fifty years, Turkey has been fighting against ethnic terrorism. In this context, it is stated that another institution is needed to achieve the ultimate aim. It should be taken into account that this formation ordered by the National Security Council or the relevant ministry will monitor the matter, prepare reports and send them to the relevant institutions, and that the institution that focuses on consultation and evaluation rather than an executive identity according to the information and intelligence received. Through this new institution making adequate warnings for the scope of the fight against terrorism, taking all other necessary measures and providing multi-service for the integrity of the fight, the detection of problems by this institution will be facilitated. Furthermore, it should also be respected as a reinforcer in problem solving.
The historical origins of ethnic terror have been taking place in Turkish geography for more than a hundred years. The Armenian terror that started with Dashnaksutyun and Hinchak has united with the PKK since 1984 and has continued the separatist activities of the Turkish Republic under one umbrella in Eastern Anatolia and Southeastern Anatolia rapidly. The massacres of civilians committed by the Asala and the PKK both individually and jointly, the crimes against public authority, the bombings and assassinations are aimed at weakening the power and strength of the state. In this way, the desire to be trustworthy in the eyes of the public and to create emptiness and hesitation in the minds of the people is implicitly conveyed. The aim of terrorism is to pursue a policy of intimidation by force. It aims to weaken the State it targets and to use this to its own advantage. To do this, the terorrist seeks to gain the support of the people, who are his most important asset. The first measure that states should take in the fight against terror and terrorism must necessarily be to secure the support of the people. It is necessary to recognize the consequences of terror at an early stage and intervene. It is of great importance to eliminate all the causes that support terrorist organizations and to stop their abuses. Ensuring the isolation of terrorist organizations through the application of external and internal isolation, is an important step in the fight. The goal of internal isolation is to separate the terrorist organization from the population. Illegitimate terrorist acts can be disseminated to the public through proper channels and with real information. The objective of external isolation is to cut off economic, political, military, and ideological support for terrorism. Neighboring countries are primarily places where this isolation must be carried out. Countries that support activities against the country should be deterred through a series of economic and political measures, and in cases where this is not sufficient, implicit or direct countermeasures should be taken. Neutralizing the causes and not allowing the causes to arise must become a state tradition and engage in supra-political activities at the national level. It is very important that the opposite steps and practices are based on a long-term roadmap and on a continuous government policy to prevent terrorist organizations that will form if they find points of attachment and that are used consistently through external collaborations. Otherwise, it must be seen that a policy that is not based on continuity and is sporadic is not enough to control the process, and in this context should be implemented a specific policy.
TURK DEGS Researcher; Dursun Mert Tupuz